Einleitung

Der Beginn einer gr÷▀eren Kamelienpflanzung (Freilandpflanzung) begann im Herbst 1984 mit inzwischen mehr als 200 verschiedenen Sorten. Nach einigen Jahren verlegte sich mein Hauptinteresse dabei zunehmend auf Higo-Kamelien. Gef÷rdert wurde dies noch durch Besuche bei Dr. Franco Ghirardi und gleichzeitigem Erwerb mehrerer neuer Sorten. In seinem Buch ‘Higo Camellia’ finden sich die Beschreibungen der Higos und Erklńrungen zu ihrem kulturellen Hintergrund.

Im japanischen Schriftsystem gibt es keinen Unterschied zwischen Gro▀buchstaben und Kleinbuchstaben, was die ▄bertragung der Namen in europńische Sprachen erschwert. Bei der hier verwendeten Nomenklatur halte ich mich teilweise an die Ver÷ffentlichung im Journal der ICS 2010, vorwiegend jedoch an die Mitteilungen der Higo-Kameliengesellschaft 2013 in Kumamoto, Japan. Hier ist zu erwńhnen, dass die pinkfarbene Sorte ‘Miyaki-zakura’ als 124. Higo eingefŘgt worden ist.
Weiterhin: Es gilt ‘Beni-zakura’ statt Bebizakura und aus ďta-haku ist
Shin-˘ta-haku’ geworden.

Hier eine nńhere Erklńrung zur Schreibweise japanischer Namen:

 (Dies ist entnommen aus: “THOMAS J. SAVIGE, The Transliteration of Japanese Camellia Cultivar Names, in International Camellia Journal 1999, S. 125f”:)

In addition to the Hepburn System ( hierzu eine nńhere Erklńrung unter http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hepburn-System) , officially adopted by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants for transliteration of Japanese characters into the Latin alphabet, there are a number of other Systems for doing so. In post of the Japanese books on camellias published before 1980, the authors were scientists and the names were transliterated in meticulous Hepburn. Some recent publications, in particular nursery lists, have been compiled mostly by lay-persons and contain many cases of mixed transliteration Systems. These lists have often been transferred to official publications without meticulous editing.
A study of the recently received 1999 edition of Camellia Nomenclature, published by the Southern California Camellia Society, and of other official yearbooks, journals and publications from the USA, indicates that these variants are being used in place of the Hepburn System.
Another example is the recent "Nippon Tsubaki - Sazanka Meikan", published in
Japan. The variants in this book have been corrected in the English translation
One of the main differences between various Systems is their method of differentiat- ing between the long and short pronunciation for the vowels "o" and "u". For example, the character ˘ = o in Hepburn is written in other transliteration Systems variously as "oh", "oy" or "oo". The use of these non-Hepburn transliterations can make a word almost unpronounceable for a Westerner. However, omission of any of these vowel pronunciation  devices,  including  the  Hepburn,  changes  the  meaning  of  a  word entirely.
For example, in Hepburn, use of the diacritic vowel bar, or circumflex, with "˘" = ??? = large, huge or grand, but without the vowel bar it becomes "o" = oh = little, nice, smooth. A similar Situation exists with "u".
In the past, there was a problem in computers with the diacritic used for the vowel bar and a symbol was specially programmed into Computer Software. Now, in the keyboard layouts and character sets that are Standard in most modern Computer Software, there is a diacritic circumflex which can be used without any further programming.
However, there are problems when lists of cultivar epithets are produced entirely in capital letters. In general, use of all capital letters is undesirable and is best avoided as it can be difficult to employ diacritics satisfactorily with the Japanese translitera- tions. In addition, it may cause confusion in interpreting the Hepburn requirement that only the initial letter of a name be capitalized.
Back to Basics
The latest edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, dated 1995, has specific requirements for dealing with the translation into another language and the transliteration into Latin alphabet of oriental cultivar epithets. This is covered in Chapter VII, p. 33, Article 28.4: "Transliteration into a script employing the Latin alphabet must be  in accordance with the following international Standards:
'Pinyin' for Chinese; 'Hepburn' for Japanese and ‘Mclune Reischauer’ for Korean.
Article  28.6  then  specifies:  "For  consistency  in  cultivar  epithets  the  particle  'no', derived from transliterated cultivar epithets, is to be hyphenated before and after that particle." Examples: 'Koto-no-ura'; 'Ama-no-gawa'; and 'Haru-no-umi'.
It should be noted that only the first letter of a transliterated name is in capitals. This is so in all cases except where a place name is involved. Example: 'Hagoromo-Kansai'.
Article 28.7 states: "Hyphenated cultivar epithets must not be separated subsequently into  single words without hyphens unless to correct grammatical or etymiological errors." This mostly refers to modern languages.
In regard to the orthography of a transliterated Japanese cultivar epithet, the Hepburn System generally requires the name to be written in one unhyphenated word, except in the case of the particle "no" previously mentioned. However, when two adjoining characters bring vowels together in their transliteration, a hyphen or a single inverted comma (single quotation mark) may be used to separate the name at that point. Examples: ‘Haku-un'; 'Hana-akari'; 'Haru-uraru'; 'Hi-inko'; 'Hi-osho'; 'Hoso-e-omi';
and 'Hatsu-arashi', or with the single inverted comma 'Hatsu'arashi'.
Hyphens  should  be  used  to  separate  out  group  names.  Examples: 
‘Ise-tsubaki’; 'Iwane-shibori'; 'lyo-wasishin'; 'Kaga-wabisuke'; 'Kagoshima-benten';
‘Kaido-sazanka’ and 'Higo-shirayuki'. It is also permitted for ease in pronunciation to
introduce hyphens at suitable points in an otherwise long and unwieldy name. Examples: ‘Hikarugenji-yokomoku' and 'Hiroshima-sozen-uruiro'.

Hoffentlich kann hiermit eine einheitliche Schreibweise der japanischen Namen erreicht werden.

Eine Higo kann nicht als C. japonica bezeichnet werden; die Herkunft zu Zeiten der Samurai ist immer noch geheimnisvoll. Laut Mitteilungen von Shigeo Matsumoto in dem oben erwńhnten Jahrbuch sind die Higos wohl keine reinen Nachkommen von C. japonica; genetische Untersuchungen schlie▀en eine Einkreuzung einer chinesischen Spezies nicht aus. Das Geheimnis ihrer Entstehung bleibt also noch ein Mysterium.

Es ist immer noch schwierig, Higo-Kamelien ( und dann auch noch sortenecht) zu bekommen. Inzwischen hat jedoch K.-J. Eberts (www.kamelien-24.de) damit begonnen,
mehrere Higos zu vermehren; die Anzahl der Sorten wird auch noch steigen.

 

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